Dushanba, 22-sentyabr, 2014 Toshkent vaqti: 09:11

Amerika

Yaqin Sharqda suv zaxiralari keskin kamaygan

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Sun’iy yo’ldosh orqali olingan tasvirlar Yaqin Sharqda yer osti suvlari qurib borayotganini ko’rsatyapti. Shundoq ham serob bo’lmagan obi-hayotning kamayishi bu beqaror mintaqada yangi mojarolarga turtki berishi mumkin. 

Yaqin Sharqda suv zaxiralari keskin kamayib ketgan/Shohruh Hamro
Yaqin Sharqda suv zaxiralari keskin kamayib ketgan/Shohruh Hamro i
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Dajla va Furot daryolari Turkiyaning janubi-sharqiy qismida, kurdlar o’lkasida boshlanib, Suriya va Iroq hududidan o’tib, Fors ko’rfaziga quyiladi. Hududdagi og’ir iqtisodiy ahvolni yaxshilash maqsadida Turkiya hukumati daryolar bo’ylab 20 dan ziyod to’g’on qurgan, deydi Kolorado universiteti olimasi Keytlin Voss.

“Ular ma’lum siyosiy va ijtimoiy sabablarga ko’ra, imkon qadar ko’proq suvdan foydalanishga intilmoqda”, - deydi u rasmiy Anqara haqida.

Bu suvlar Turkiyadan qo’shni mamlakatlarga arang yetib borayapti. 2007-yilgi qattiq qurg’oqchilik paytida Iroq va Suriyada daryo sathi pasayib ketdi, bu esa dehqonchilik uchun zarba bo’lgan edi. Keytlin Voss va uning hamkasblari deydiki, Turkiyaning Dajla va Furotda qurgan to’g’onlari fermerlik xo’jaliklarini saqlab qoldi, lekin…

“Turkiya hatto qurg’oq pallada ham suvdan foydalanishni kamaytirmadi. Oqibatda Suriya va Iroqqa kam suv yetib bordi. Bu ikki mamlakat obi-hayotning boshqa manbalarini - yer ostidan izlashga majbur bo’ldi,” - deydi olima.  

Yaqin Sharqda o’zi qancha suv bor va qanchasi ishlatiladi? Bunday statistika xavfsizlik sabablariga ko’ra oshkor etilmaydi. Shu bois tadqiqotchilar sun’iy yo’ldoshlardan foydalandi.

Fazodan olingan ma’lumotlar shuni ko’rsatdi-ki, 2003-2009 yillar oralig’ida Dajla va Furotning yuqori qismida 144 kubokilometr suv g’oyib bo’lgan.

“Bu O’lik dengizdagi suv hajmi bilan barobar”, - deydi Keytlin Voss.

Sarf qilingan chuchuk suvlarning katta qismi, 60 foizi yer osti zaxiralarga to’g’ri keladi. Buning ustiga iqlim o’zgarishini inobatga oladigan bo’lsak, kelajakda buning oqibatlari juda salbiy bo’lishi shubhasiz, deydi u.

“Mintaqada iqlim quruqlashib borayapti, tabiiy ofatlar bundan buyon ko’p-ko’p yuz beradi. Demak, umumiy vaziyat yomonlashsa yomonlashadi-ki, ijobiy tarafga o’zgarmaydi”.
 
Bunday vaziyatda daryolar suvidan foydalanayotgan uch davlat hamkorlik qilmasa bo’lmaydi, suv zaxiralari taqsimlanishi kerak, deydi Voss.

Oregon universiteti qoshidagi Suv tadqiqotlari instituti rahbari Todd Jarvisning aytishicha, sun’iy yo’ldoshdan olingan suratlar endi yerda to’plangan ma’lumotlar bilan tasdiqlanishi kerak. Biroq bu raqamlar xavfsizlikka taalluqli deb oshkor etilmaydi. Izlanish yana bir jihati bilan ahamiyatli.

“Suv hajmi qanchaga kamayayotganini o’rganishdan tashqari bu olimlar mavjud suv zaxiralaridan samarali foydalanish uchun nima qilish kerak, yuqoridagi xulosalarga asoslanib birgalikda qanday choralar ko’rish mumkin, degan savollarni ham o’rtaga tashlaydi”.

Todd Jarvis deydiki, mana shunday noan’anaviy usulda olib borilgan mustaqil tadqiqotlar suv taqchilligi bilan yuzlashayotgan ko’pgina mintaqalar uchun juda foydali.
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