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AQSh Markaziy Osiyoga harbiy yordami yuzasidan tanqid ostida, javob nima?


O'zbekiston askarlari, Mustaqillik kuni, Toshkent, 31-avgust, 2012

Ochiq Jamiyat Instituti (Open Society Institute) tashabbusi bilan olib borilgan tadqiqot shuni ko’rsatganki, Amerikaning Markaziy Osiyo davlatlariga harbiy madadi aksariyat hollarda xalq farovonligi uchun xizmat qilmayapti.

AQSh-Markaziy Osiyo: Harbiy yordam/Navbahor Imamova
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0:00 0:05:30 0:00
Yuklab oling
Xavfsizlik yo’lida berilayotgan ko’mak, deydi bu izlanish muallifi Joshua Kuchera (Joshua Kucera), asosan avtoritar tuzumlar manfaati uchun qo’llangan.


AQSh esa Afg’oniston yuzasidan ketayotgan hamkorlikni boy bermaslik uchun qator qora ishlarga ko’z yumgan, deydi Kuchera. Qirg’iziston bunga yaqqol misol. 2010-yilda hokimiyatdan ag’darilgan Kurmanbek Bakiyev AQSh tomonidan tayyorlangan va ta’minlangan maxsus bo’linmani xalq himoyasi uchun emas, o’zi va atrofidagi shaxslarni himoya qilish uchun ishlatgan.

Joshua Kuchera bilan qilgan suhbatimizni mana bu yerda tinglab tomosha qilishingiz mumkin.

AQSh hukumati bu tanqidlarga qanday javob bermoqda?

Joshua Kucheraning Vashingtonga tavsiyasi shuki, xavfsizlikni mustahkamlash uchun berilgan yordam faqat Afg’oniston bilan bog’lanib qolmasin. Ko’mak darajasi Afg’oniston prioritetga aylangan paytda oshgan, chetga surilganida pasaygan, deydi ekspert, buni isbotlovchi katta jadvalga ishora qilib.

Markaziy Osiyo tinchligi yo’lida qanday yordam ko’rsatish haqida chuqur o’ylanib, aynan xalqqa foydasi tegadigan konkret dasturlar ishlab chiqing, deydi Kuchera, toki ular bu jamiyatlarni qiynayotgan masalalarga yechim topishda xizmat qilsin.

Linn Treysi (Lynne Tracy), AQShning Markaziy Osiyo bo'yicha bosh diplomati
Linn Treysi (Lynne Tracy), AQShning Markaziy Osiyo bo'yicha bosh diplomati
AQShning mintaqa bo’yicha bosh diplomati Linn Treysi (Lynne Tracy):


“Harbiy ko’mak faqat Afg’oniston bobidagi hamkorlik uchun berilayapti deb xulosa qilish xato. Bu notinch mamlakatda vaziyatni yaxshilash uchun birga ishlashga majburmiz, bu haqiqat... Lekin Markaziy Osiyo respublikalari mustaqillikka erishganidan beri, ya’ni o’tgan 20 yillik tarixga qarasangiz, Amerika boshidan chegara xavfsizligi, qoradori savdosiga qarshi kurash, xavfsizlik tizimlari islohoti yo’lida jon kuydirib kelganini ko’rasiz”.

Xavfsizlikdan tashqari Vashington iqtisodiy hamkorlik, siyosiy islohotlar, huquq va demokratiya targ’iboti va mintaqaviy birdamlik singari masalalarga ham urg’u beradi, deydi diplomat.

Amerika 2014-yilda Afg’onistondan chiqib ketgach, Markaziy Osiyoga e’tibor pasayadi desangiz, adashasiz, mushtarak manfaatlar juda ko’p va birga ishlashda davom etamiz, deydi u.

AQSh uzatgan harbiy vositalar va u tayyorlagan maxsus kuchlar suiiste’mol qilinganida bu davlat vaziyatga ko’z yumgan degan iddaoni ham Linn Treysi inkor etadi.

Aniq isbot va dalil bo’lsa, chora ko’riladi, mas’ul shaxslar javobgarlikka tortiladi, deydi u. Harbiy madad sifatida ajratilgan mablag’ audit qilinadi va korrupsiya alomatlari aniqlansa, “biz qarab turmaymiz” deydi diplomat.

Vashington Markaziy Osiyoga og’ir qurollar uzatmaydi, berilgan yengil vositalar qanday ishlatilayotgani, malakasi oshirilgan harbiylar qayerda va qanday maqsadlarda safarbar etilgani doimiy kuzatuvda, deydi Joshua Kuchera.

Joshua Kuchera (Kucera) va Jeff Goldstein (chapdan) Ochiq Jamiyat Institutida o'tgan davra suhbatida, Vashington, 16-oktabr, 2012
Joshua Kuchera (Kucera) va Jeff Goldstein (chapdan) Ochiq Jamiyat Institutida o'tgan davra suhbatida, Vashington, 16-oktabr, 2012
AQSh Kongressi O’zbekistonga yordamni 2004-yildan beri cheklab qo’ygan edi. Sabab – inson huquqlari bilan bog’liq ahvol og’ir ekani. Lekin vaziyat yaxshilanmaganiga qaramay 2012-yilga kelib, harbiy ko’mak ko’rsatishga qaror qilindi. Nima uchun?


“Amerika hukumati nazarida bu davlat chegara xizmatini zarur vositalar (jangovar emas) bilan ta’minlash bizning manfaatlarimiz uchun xizmat qiladi. Afg’onistonga yuk tashiladigan yo’nalish O’zbekiston hududidan o’tadi va bu tizim himoya qilinishini istaymiz”,- deya javob qiladi diplomat.

Shimoliy Ta’minot Tizimi sifatida tanilgan bu yo’nalish bilan bog’liq shartnomalar va konktraktorlar hamda ular bilan ishlayotgan tomonlar sir tutiladi. Nima uchun?

“Biz yo’nalish uchun davlatlarga pul to’lamaymiz, ammo biz bilan ishlayotgan xususiy bizneslar haqida axborot bermaymiz, bu mavjud bitimlarga ziddir”,- deydi Linn Treysi.


Ekspertlar, xususan Joshua Kuchera nazarida bu adolatsizlik. Konktraktorlar hukumatlarga yaqin bizneslar, ularning iznidagi kompaniyalar ekani aniq; AQSh bilan imzolangan shartnomalardan rahbarlar katta foyda ko’rayapti, deydi Kuchera.

2011-yilda Amerika Shimoliy Ta’minot Tizimi uchun mintaqada yarim milliard dollarga yaqin mablag’ sarflagan.

Markaziy Osiyoga beriladigan harbiy yordam xususidagi ma’lumotlar umuman olganda sir saqlanmaydi, lekin ularni olish juda qiyin.

Buni osonlashtirishi kerak, deydi mutaxassis, Amerika xalqi va Markaziy Osiyo ahlining mavjud hamkorlikdan kim qanday foyda ko’rayotganini bilishga haqqi bor.

AQSh-Markaziy Osiyo, harbiy yordam ortidagi savollar/US Military Aid to Central Asia. Who benefits?
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US military aid to Central Asia, who benefits? Interview with Joshua Kucera, analyst
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0:00 0:25:12 0:00

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    Navbahor Imamova

    Navbahor Imamova "Amerika Manzaralari" turkumidagi ilk teledasturlar muallifi. TV, radio va onlayn diktor, prodyuser, muxbir va muharrir. O'zbekistonda akkreditatsiyadan o'tgan, ya'ni respublikadan turib axborot berish imkoniyatiga yagona amerikalik jurnalist. "Amerika Ovozi"da 2002-yildan beri ishlaydi. Jurnalistik faoliyatini 1996-yilda O'zbekiston radiosining "Xalqaro hayot" redaksiyasida boshlagan. Jahon Tillar Universiteti Xalqaro jurnalistika fakultetida dars bergan. Ommaviy axborot vositalari bo'yicha bakalavrlikni Hindistonning Maysur Universitetidan (University of Mysore), magistrlikni esa AQShning Bol Davlat Universitetidan (Ball State University) olgan. Shuningdek, Garvard Universitetidan (Harvard University) davlat boshqaruvi va liderlik bo'yicha magistrlik diplomiga ega. Toshkent viloyati Bo'stonliq tumani Qo'shqo'rg'on qishlog'ida ziyoli oilasida ulg'aygan.

    Navbahor Imamova is a prominent Uzbek journalist at the Voice of America. As anchor, reporter, editor, web editor, and producer, she has covered Central Asia and America for nearly 20 years on TV, radio and online. For the last year, she has also been reporting from inside Uzbekistan as the only and first-ever accredited U.S.-based journalist. Navbahor is also the founding President of the VOA Women’s Caucus. Educated in Uzbekistan, India, and at Harvard University, she was a 2016-17 Edward S. Mason Fellow at Harvard’s John F. Kennedy School of Government, where she also earned her Masters in Public Administration. Navbahor played a pivotal role in the launch of Uzbek television programming at VOA in 2003 and has since presented more than 800 editions of the flagship weekly show “Exploring America,” which covers American foreign policy for some 40 million Uzbek speakers worldwide, focusing on U.S. relations with Central Asia and life and politics in the United States. She has co-hosted VOA-wide special broadcasts for a global audience. She has received multiple awards for excellence in broadcasting, including the VOA Gold Medal in 2010. As a multimedia journalist, with millions of viewers, listeners, followers, and fans, Navbahor writes and speaks frequently on Uzbek domestic politics, foreign policy, and society, as well as regional issues in Central Asia, for policy, academic, and popular audiences. Her essays have appeared in leading journals, including Foreign Policy, The National Interest, and The Diplomat, and she has lectured at institutions including the U.S. Foreign Service Institute, Columbia University, Johns Hopkins University, Georgetown University, and George Washington University. Navbahor began her career at the Uzbek state broadcaster as a reporter and producer. She taught journalism at her alma mater, the Uzbek State University of World Languages in Tashkent, and then earned a B.A. in journalism and mass communication from Maharaja’s College at the University of Mysore in India. A recipient of the Edmund Muskie Fellowship, she earned her MA in journalism from Ball State University. In 2009, Ball State’s journalism department named her an Outstanding Young Alumna.

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