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O'zbekiston, Tojikiston: Suv va energetika muammolari yechimi Rog'unga bog'liq emas


Sangtuda qishlog'i, Tojikiston

Suv va quvvat O’zbekiston va Tojikistonni bir-biriga bog’lovchi va qarshi qo’yuvchi masala. Tojikiston energetik jihatdan mustaqil bo’lish uchun qurbi yetmaydigan darajada ulkan inshoot - Rog’un gidroelektrostansiyasini qurmoqda. Qishloq xo’jaligiga asoslangan O’zbekiston ob-hayot ozayadi va butun mintaqa ekologiyasi xavf ostida qoladi deya nolib keladi.

Bu ziddiyat xalqaro hamjamiyat yordamida hal bo’lar degan umid bor, lekin masalani o’rganib chiqqan Jahon banki va uning ortida turgan G’arb davlatlari nazarida ikki davlat o’zaro manfaatlardan kelib chiqqan holda murosaga kelishi kerak.

O’zbekiston va Tojikistondan kelib, Vashingtonda besh oy malaka oshirgan yosh tadqiqotchilar o’z taklif va mulohazalarini olg’a surmoqda. Ular fikricha, suv va energetika muammosini yechish mumkin, siyosiy iroda va to’g’ri quvvatlov kerak xolos. (Fotolar Facebookda)

Suv-Energetika-O'zbekiston-Tojikiston-Navbahor Imamova
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Water/Energy in Central Asia-Marlene Laruelle-Nariya Khasanova-Said Yakhyoev-GWU-6-24-14
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Marlen Laruel (Marlene Laruelle) Jorj Vashington universitetida Markaziy Osiyo bo’limi rahbari. Mintaqaviy masalalar, siyosat va iqtisodiyot xususida ilmiy izlanishlar olib boradi, kitoblar yozgan. Markaziy Osiyodan yosh mutaxassislarni AQShga taklif qilib, ularga murabbiylik qiladi. Bu safar O’zbekiston va Tojikistondan ikki yoshni olib keldi va ular bilan aynan suv va energetika masalasida izlandi.

Olimaning xulosasi shuki, Markaziy Osiyoda suv tanqis emas. Mintaqada ob-hayot yetarli, deydi u, faqat bu sohani to’g’ri boshqarish va suvdan unumli foydalanish kerak.

O’zbekiston - dunyoda eng ko’p suv isrof qiladigan davlatlardan, kishi boshida yiliga 2,358 kubometr ishlatadi. Laruel xonim boshqalar bilan qiyoslaydi: Turkmaniston - 5,415 kubometr; Qirg’iziston - 2,015 kubometr; Tojikiston - 1,740 kubometr; AQSh -1,550 kubometr, Qozog’iston - 1,304 kubometr; Isroil - 281 kubometr.

Suv, qishloq xo’jaligi, ekologiya va inson hayoti bir-biriga chambarchas bog’liq. Har birini to’g’ri yurita olish kerak, deydi Marlen Laruel. Afsuski, O’zbekiston va Tojikiston hukumatlari bu masalani asosan Rog’un qurilishiga qadab xato qiladi. Rog’un qurilsa ham, qurilmasa ham muammo hal bo’lmaydi. Suvni qurol qilmang, deydi tadqiqotchi.

Xalqaro hamjamiyat, xususan Amerika esa mintaqaviy integratsiya orqali olam guliston bo’ladi deya nasihat qilish bilan yordam bera olmaydi. Regional birdamlik foyda keltiradi, lekin aynan bu masalada yondashuvni o’zgartirish kerak. Jahon banki va Osiyo taraqqiyot banki singari donorlar ham o’z strategiyalarini qayta ko’rib chiqishi va mahalliy yechimlar ustida o’ylanib, yangi loyihalar bilan chiqishi kerak, deydi Marlen Laruel.

Uning qo’l ostida malaka oshirgan o'zbekistonlik Nariya Hasanova deydiki:

“Tashqi dunyo umumiy va mujmal gaplarni bas qilib, muayyan maqsadlarga e’tibor qaratishi kerak. O’zbekistonda suv masalasini mamlakat miqyosida ko’rib chiqish kerak. Respublika hukumati buni tushuna boshlagan va aynan shu maqsadda donorlardan mablag’ so’ramoqda. Islohotsiz oldinga siljib bo'lmaydi. Islohotni amalga oshirish esa davlat va fuqaro burchi. Qishloq xo’jaligini yangilash, dehqon va fermerlarga erkinlik berish, tadbirkorlarni quvvatlash, texnik bilim va tajribani oshirish…”

Tojikistondan Said Yahyoyev fikricha ham uning yurti muammoga mahalliy jihatdan yondashib, ko’rpaga qarab oyoq uzatishi lozim. Rog’unni qurish va yuritish uchun mablag’ yo’q va qurbi yetmaydigan loyihani yechim sifatida ko’rish mantiqdan emas, deydi Yahyoyev.

Energetik taqchillik muammosini kichikroq inshootlar barpo etib hal qilsa bo’ladi. Qishloq, tuman va shahar hokimiyatlari yetarli salohiyatga ega bo’lgan taqdirda, energetika sohasini o’zlari yurita olishi mumkin. An’anaviy va muqobil energiya manbalari haqida ham o’ylash kerak. Maxsus programma zarur. Donorlar ham yangicha fikrlashga o'tsin, deydi mutaxassis.

Nariya Xasanova, o'zbekistonlik tadqiqotchi
Nariya Xasanova, o'zbekistonlik tadqiqotchi

Hozirgacha berilgan mablag’ xalqqa nima berdi? Masala qanchalik hal bo’layapti? Donorlar haqiqatni biladi – isrofgarchilik keng, deydi tadqiqotchi. Maqsad Tojikistonda quvvat ta’minotini yaxshilash bo’lsa, tub islohotlar qilish kerak. Hukumat bizneslar, xususan yosh tadbirkorlar uchun imkoniyatlarni kengaytirsa, ularga yo’l bersa, energetik soha tezroq rivojlanadi, deydi Yahyoyev, jahon tajribasi haqida gapirar ekan.

Said Yahyoyev Marlen Laruel bilan
Said Yahyoyev Marlen Laruel bilan

Toza energiya manbalari taraqqiyoti yo'lida BMT va boshqa xalqaro organlarga tayanish mumkin. Zarur texnologiya va yordam uchun ularga murojaat qilish kerak, deydi Said Yahyoyev.

O’zbekiston va Tojikistondan bu ikki yosh tadqiqotchi nazarida davlatlar muammolarda bir-birini ayblamay, kuch va g’ayratni suv va energetika sohasini boshdan oyoq yangilashga sarflashi kerak. Bundan boshqa yechim yo’q, deydi ular, buni nafaqat ikki respublika va qo’shnilar balki uzoqdagi hamkorlar ham tushuna bilishi lozim.

Jorj Vashington universitetidagi muhokamadan
Jorj Vashington universitetidagi muhokamadan

Jorj Vashington universitetidagi muhokamadan
Jorj Vashington universitetidagi muhokamadan
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    Navbahor Imamova

    Navbahor Imamova "Amerika Manzaralari" turkumidagi ilk teledasturlar muallifi. TV, radio va onlayn diktor, prodyuser, muxbir va muharrir. O'zbekistonda akkreditatsiyadan o'tgan, ya'ni respublikadan turib axborot berish imkoniyatiga yagona amerikalik jurnalist. "Amerika Ovozi"da 2002-yildan beri ishlaydi. Jurnalistik faoliyatini 1996-yilda O'zbekiston radiosining "Xalqaro hayot" redaksiyasida boshlagan. Jahon Tillar Universiteti Xalqaro jurnalistika fakultetida dars bergan. Ommaviy axborot vositalari bo'yicha bakalavrlikni Hindistonning Maysur Universitetidan (University of Mysore), magistrlikni esa AQShning Bol Davlat Universitetidan (Ball State University) olgan. Shuningdek, Garvard Universitetidan (Harvard University) davlat boshqaruvi va liderlik bo'yicha magistrlik diplomiga ega. Toshkent viloyati Bo'stonliq tumani Qo'shqo'rg'on qishlog'ida ziyoli oilasida ulg'aygan.

    Navbahor Imamova is a prominent Uzbek journalist at the Voice of America. As anchor, reporter, editor, web editor, and producer, she has covered Central Asia and America for nearly 20 years on TV, radio and online. For the last year, she has also been reporting from inside Uzbekistan as the only and first-ever accredited U.S.-based journalist. Navbahor is also the founding President of the VOA Women’s Caucus. Educated in Uzbekistan, India, and at Harvard University, she was a 2016-17 Edward S. Mason Fellow at Harvard’s John F. Kennedy School of Government, where she also earned her Masters in Public Administration. Navbahor played a pivotal role in the launch of Uzbek television programming at VOA in 2003 and has since presented more than 800 editions of the flagship weekly show “Exploring America,” which covers American foreign policy for some 40 million Uzbek speakers worldwide, focusing on U.S. relations with Central Asia and life and politics in the United States. She has co-hosted VOA-wide special broadcasts for a global audience. She has received multiple awards for excellence in broadcasting, including the VOA Gold Medal in 2010. As a multimedia journalist, with millions of viewers, listeners, followers, and fans, Navbahor writes and speaks frequently on Uzbek domestic politics, foreign policy, and society, as well as regional issues in Central Asia, for policy, academic, and popular audiences. Her essays have appeared in leading journals, including Foreign Policy, The National Interest, and The Diplomat, and she has lectured at institutions including the U.S. Foreign Service Institute, Columbia University, Johns Hopkins University, Georgetown University, and George Washington University. Navbahor began her career at the Uzbek state broadcaster as a reporter and producer. She taught journalism at her alma mater, the Uzbek State University of World Languages in Tashkent, and then earned a B.A. in journalism and mass communication from Maharaja’s College at the University of Mysore in India. A recipient of the Edmund Muskie Fellowship, she earned her MA in journalism from Ball State University. In 2009, Ball State’s journalism department named her an Outstanding Young Alumna.

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