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Din va zamon: Tablig' jamoati nima, tablig'chlar kimlar?


Jamoat al-Tablig' Hindiston va Bangladeshda ayniqsa keng tarqalgan. (Bayram Balci)
Ayni damda Vashingtonda izlanish olib borayotgan olimlardan biri Bayram Balchi bo’lib, u o’zini o’zbek-turk-fransuz deb tanishtiradi.

2006-2010-yillarda Bayram Balchi (Balci) Toshkentda fransuz ilm maskanini boshqargan. O’zbekistonda yurganida Turkiyaning butun mintaqaga ta’siri va islomiy uyg’onish davrini o’rgangan. Fransuz tilida chiqadigan va aynan Markaziy Osiyoda siyosat, e’tiqod va ijtimoiy hayotni yorituvchi jurnal bosh muharriri. O’tgan yillarda u butun diqqatini Jamoat al-Tablig’ (Tablig’ jamoati) degan harakatga qaratdi.

Tablig' jamoati - Bayram Balchi- Markaziy Osiyo - Navbahor Imamova
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Bayram Balchi, olim (Bayram Balci)
Bayram Balchi, olim (Bayram Balci)
Jamoat al-Tablig’ Hindistonda, musulmon aholisi jihatidan dunyoda Indoneziya va Pokistondan keyingi uchinchi o’rinda turadigan jamiyatda chuqur ildiz otgan.

Harakat tarixi 1920-yillarga borib taqaladi. Muhammad Ilyos Kandalaviy degan so’fi unga asos solgan.

Tablig’ arabchada "yetkazmoq" degan ma’noni beradi. Jamoat al-Tablig’ islomning asl ma’nosini tushuntirish va targ’ib qilishni maqsad qilgan harakat. Shu tariqa konservativ islomning bir qismi sanaladi, deydi olim Bayram Balchi.

Uning a’zolarini fundamental qarashdagi musulmonlar deyish mumkin, ammo guruh siyosiy mafkuraga ega emas va hokimiyatga intilmaydi. Hizb-ut-Tahrir singari tashkilotlardan farqi shunda, deydi u.

Jamoat al-Tablig’ tuzilgan zamonlardayoq siyosiy masalalarga aralashmagan, masalan Hindistonda hindu-musulmon mojarosidan nari yurgan, deya izohlaydi tadqiqotchi.

Harakat keyinroq G’arbiy Yevropa, xususan Fransiyada ham paydo bo'ldi.

Tablig’chilar diniy targ’ibotni burch deb biladi. To’rt oygacha bo’lgan muddatda maxsus darslardan o’tgach, dunyo kezib, islom urug’ini sochishga bel bog’laydi. Uch kunlik va 40 kunlik safarga chiqib, targ’ibot ishlari olib boriladi.

Kalima keltirish, namoz, ilm va zikr, boshqa musulmonlarga hurmat, har bir ishni xudo yo’liga qilish va islom o’gitlarini eshikma-eshik yurib yetkazish – hayot mazmunidir, deya bayon qilgan Muhammad Ilyos Kandalaviy o’z kitoblarida.

Markaziy Osiyoga tablig’chilar 1960-70-yillarda borgan, deya tushuntiradi Bayram Balchi. Sovet Ittifoqi bilan yaqin bo’lgan Hindiston o’z yoshlarini u yerga o’qishga yuborganida, talabalar orasida bu harakat a’zolari ham bor edi.

Mintaqa davlatlari mustaqillikka erishgach diniy uyg’onishga e’tibor oshdi. Arab dunyosi, Turkiya va Janubiy Osiyodan turli oqim va harakatlar o’z ta’sirini o’tkazishga urina boshladi. Islomiy targ’ibot kuchaydi.

1990-yillar oxiriga borib, O’zbekistondek yirik jamiyatda hukumat diniy faoliyat ustidan nazoratni kuchaytirdi.

Mutaassiblikka o’rin yo’q; aqidaparastlik va radikal qarashlar toqat qilinmaydi; diniy adabiyot, darslik va o’gitlar hukumat maxsus idorasi tomonidan ma’qullanishi kerak; O’zbekiston dunyoviy tuzumda qoladi degan siyosat amalda.

Jamoat al-Tablig’ O’zbekiston, Tojikiston va Qozog’istonda man etilgan. Aynan Tojikistonda o'nlab a'zolar qamoqda, deydi Balchi.

Harakat Qirg’izistonda ancha erkin faoliyat yuritadi, ammo hukumatga doimiy hisobot berib turilishi shart. Turkmanistonda kuzatilmagan, deydi u.

Olim Hindistonda izlanishlar olib borganida Markaziy Osiyodan borgan yosh tablig’chilarni uchratgan. Dehli, Laknov va Kalkuttadagi markazlarda o’zbeklar, tojiklar, qirg’izlar va qozoqlar bor, deya tasviylaydi u.

Olim deydiki, Qirg’izistonda tablig’chilar e’tibori asosan qirg’iz yoshlarida. Chunki, deya tahlil qiladi u, bu qatlam dindan ancha yiroq va ularning ongiga ta’sir qilib, ichkilik va giyohvand moddalarni tashlashga undash osonroq.

Namoz o’qishni o’rgatish, Qur’on mazmunini tushuntirish va shu tariqa, tablig’chilar so’zi bilan aytganda, to’g’ri yo’lga boshlash – savob ish deya qaraladi, deydi Bayram Balchi. O’zbek oilalarida din va iymonga e’tibor azaldan kuchli, deydi u. Tablig’chilar shu sabab O’sh va Jalol-Obodda diqqatni o’zbeklar emas, qirg’izlarga qaratadi.

Ayollarga nisbatan munosabat qanday? Ko’plab dinshunoslar qatorida Bayram Balchi xotin-qizlarning bu harakatdagi rolini passiv deb hisoblaydi.

Hozir jahon siyosatida Markaziy va Janubiy Osiyo deb ataladigan mintaqalar aslida azaldan diniy-madaniy jihatdan bir-biriga ta’sir o’tkazib kelganini unutmang, deydi olim.

Turli tariqatlar, adabiyotlar va tahlilnomalar Buyuk Ipak Yo’li orqali yurtma-yurt kezib, yangi jamiyatlarda o’ziga xoz bir tarzda o’rin topgan.

Hindistonda tablig'chilar qatnaydigan masjidlardan biri (Bayram Balci)
Hindistonda tablig'chilar qatnaydigan masjidlardan biri (Bayram Balci)
Tablig’chilar markazi Dehlidagi Nizomiddin masjididir. Bangladeshda ham keng qanot yozgan.

Urdu, arab, rus, ingliz va fransuz tillarida chiqqan adabiyotlar bor.

Ular faoliyatini uzoq yillardan beri o’rganib kelayotgan Bayram Balchi nazarida bu harakat kichik guruhlar shaklida ish olib boradigan missionerlardan iborat.

Musulmon olamida tablig’chilarga nisbatan tanqid kuchli, ayniqsa arab dunyosida va xususan salafiylar orasida.

G’arbda bu tariqatni o'rgangan ziyolilar ularni zo’ravonlikdan yiroq, ammo mutaassib to’da deb ataydi.

Tablig' jamoati - Bayram Balchi- Markaziy Osiyo - Navbahor Imamova
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    Navbahor Imamova

    Navbahor Imamova "Amerika Manzaralari" turkumidagi ilk teledasturlar muallifi. TV, radio va onlayn diktor, prodyuser, muxbir va muharrir. O'zbekistonda akkreditatsiyadan o'tgan, ya'ni respublikadan turib axborot berish imkoniyatiga yagona amerikalik jurnalist. "Amerika Ovozi"da 2002-yildan beri ishlaydi. Jurnalistik faoliyatini 1996-yilda O'zbekiston radiosining "Xalqaro hayot" redaksiyasida boshlagan. Jahon Tillar Universiteti Xalqaro jurnalistika fakultetida dars bergan. Ommaviy axborot vositalari bo'yicha bakalavrlikni Hindistonning Maysur Universitetidan (University of Mysore), magistrlikni esa AQShning Bol Davlat Universitetidan (Ball State University) olgan. Shuningdek, Garvard Universitetidan (Harvard University) davlat boshqaruvi va liderlik bo'yicha magistrlik diplomiga ega. Toshkent viloyati Bo'stonliq tumani Qo'shqo'rg'on qishlog'ida ziyoli oilasida ulg'aygan.

    Navbahor Imamova is a prominent Uzbek journalist at the Voice of America. As anchor, reporter, editor, web editor, and producer, she has covered Central Asia and America for nearly 20 years on TV, radio and online. For the last year, she has also been reporting from inside Uzbekistan as the only and first-ever accredited U.S.-based journalist. Navbahor is also the founding President of the VOA Women’s Caucus. Educated in Uzbekistan, India, and at Harvard University, she was a 2016-17 Edward S. Mason Fellow at Harvard’s John F. Kennedy School of Government, where she also earned her Masters in Public Administration. Navbahor played a pivotal role in the launch of Uzbek television programming at VOA in 2003 and has since presented more than 800 editions of the flagship weekly show “Exploring America,” which covers American foreign policy for some 40 million Uzbek speakers worldwide, focusing on U.S. relations with Central Asia and life and politics in the United States. She has co-hosted VOA-wide special broadcasts for a global audience. She has received multiple awards for excellence in broadcasting, including the VOA Gold Medal in 2010. As a multimedia journalist, with millions of viewers, listeners, followers, and fans, Navbahor writes and speaks frequently on Uzbek domestic politics, foreign policy, and society, as well as regional issues in Central Asia, for policy, academic, and popular audiences. Her essays have appeared in leading journals, including Foreign Policy, The National Interest, and The Diplomat, and she has lectured at institutions including the U.S. Foreign Service Institute, Columbia University, Johns Hopkins University, Georgetown University, and George Washington University. Navbahor began her career at the Uzbek state broadcaster as a reporter and producer. She taught journalism at her alma mater, the Uzbek State University of World Languages in Tashkent, and then earned a B.A. in journalism and mass communication from Maharaja’s College at the University of Mysore in India. A recipient of the Edmund Muskie Fellowship, she earned her MA in journalism from Ball State University. In 2009, Ball State’s journalism department named her an Outstanding Young Alumna.

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