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Afg'oniston: O'zbeklar bugun va kelajak xususida qanday fikrda?


Afg'on milliy armiyasining ayol zobitlari, Qunduz ko'chalarida
30 millionga yaqin aholiga ega Afg’onistonda o’zbeklar asosan shimoliy viloyatlarda yashaydi va jamiyatning taqriban 10 foizini tashkil etadi. O’tgan 12 yil mobaynida, ya’ni Tolibon hokimiyatdan ag’darilib, yangi tuzum vujudga kelganidan beri, Amerika homiyligida va uning nazorati ostida, vaziyat ancha yaxshilandi, deydi “Amerika Ovozi” bilan muloqot qilgan o’zbeklar. Lekin kelajak mavhum. Ishsizlik va umidsizlik hukmron.


Muhammad Faryobiy Hindistonning nufuzli oliygohlarida ta’lim olib, vatanga qaytib, bugungi kunda Qunduz universitetida dars beradi. Iqtisod va biznes boshqaruvi sohasini o’rgatadi. Faryobiy xalqaro tashkilotlarda ham ishlagan. Yaqin kunlarda yana bir joyda faoliyat boshlamoqchi. Afg’oniston ahli o’ziga ishonmasa, kimga ishonadi, deya yurtdoshlarini harakatga undaydi. Shimoliy viloyatlarda boshqaruv ancha tetik, matbuot bu haqiqatni yoritmay, xavfsizlik chatoq deya bong urgani urgan, deya norozilik bildiradi Faryobiy.

Lekin o’tgan oylarda vaziyat biroz og’irlashgani ham rost. Ko’chalarda, harbiy punktlar yaqinida va bozorlarda portlashlar kuzatildi, o’nlab insonlar halok bo’ldi. Bunday hujumlarga qarshi kurashning eng ma’qul yo’li farovonlik tomon intilish, bilim olib, yaxshiroq yashashga harakat qilish, deydi Faryobiy.

Afg’on yoshlari chet ellarda o’qib kelayapti. Yurtga qaytib yangi ishlarga qo’l urayapti. Rivojlanish yo’lidan borish uchun istak va harakat borligi seziladi hammayoqda va barcha kelajakdan umidvor, deya fikr bildiradi Faryobiy.

Amerika qo’shini chiqib ketsa, Tolibon hokimiyatga qaytishi mumkin degan xavotirlar bu o’zbek ziyolisi nazarida o’rinsiz. Milliy armiya bor bugun, deydi u, ular davlatni himoya qiladi. AQSh va Hamid Karzay ma’muriyati orasida kechayotgan bahs-munozara, xavfsizlik kelishuvi ustidan tortishuv uningcha fojiali hol emas. Shu bilan birga Afg’oniston tashqi dunyo yordamiga muhtoj, deydi u, Amerika va boshqa yirik davlatlarning, shuningdek, qo’shni O’zbekistonning.

Jahon bankiga ko’ra, Afg’onistonda yalpi milliy daromad 2012-yilda 20, 5 milliard dollarni tashkil etgan. Kishi boshiga yillik daromad Afg’onistonda 680 dollar atrofida. 2001-yildan beri ikki baravar o’sgan. Iqtisodiyot chet eldan kelayotgan yordamga chambarchas bog’liq.

Kobuldan yosh jurnalist Nusratulla Ibrohimiy tahlilicha, aprel oyida prezident saylovlari o’tib, iyul oyida xalqaro koalitsiya chiqib ketishi bilan Afg’onistonda yangi davr boshlanadi. Vaziyat har tomonlama qaltis, deydi u. AQSh bilan xavfsizlik bitimi tezroq imzolansa, saylovlar oshkora va adolatli o’tishi uchun zamin yaratilsa, bu afg’on xalqi uchun ulkan yutuq bo’ladi, deydi Ibrohimiy.

Qayoqqa bormang ishsizlik, qashshoqlik, deydi jurnalist.

Xotin-qizlarning ahvoli ham o’tgan yillar ichida qanchalik yaxshilanmasin, hamon ancha og’ir, deydi Nusratulla Ibrohimiy. Ularning hayotini osonlashtiramiz deya berilgan va’dalar qog’ozda qolib ketgan. Bu yildan keyin nima bo’ladi, bilmaymiz, deya umidsizlanadi u.

Axborot vositalarining soni va turi ko’paygan, bu sohada imkoniyatlar kengaygan lekin ular azaliy muammolar iskanjasida – jurnalistlarga bosim, senzura, muayyan masalalarni yoritishni man etish, muxbirlarni do’pposlash, ularga ish paytida hujum qilish... Afg’oniston o’tgan 12 yilda oldinga siljigan lekin yuqoridagi muammolarni bartaraf etish, taraqqiyot sari qadam tashlash uchun iroda yetmayotgandek, deydi Nusratulla Ibrohimiy.

Juzjon viloyatining Shibirg’on shahridan yana bir yosh jurnalist Abdulbasir Ilg’or deydiki, bu yil qish o’tgan yillardagidek qahrli kelmadi, ona tabiat rahm qildi. Har yili Afg’onistonda yuzlab insonlar qahratonga bardosh bera olmay nobud bo’ladi. Juzjon hozirda ancha notinch viloyatlardan biri. Shibirg’onda kunduzi xavfsizroq ammo kechqurun hech kim tashqariga chiqmaydi, deydi Ilg’or. Tolibon faol va odam o’g’irlashga zo’r bermoqda. Muhim obyektlarga ham hujumlar kuzatilmoqda. O’tgan oylarda o’nlab odamning yostig’i quridi.

Abdulbasir Ilg’or nazarida ham ishsizlik eng asosiy muammo. Ayniqsa yoshlarning bekor yurishi jamiyat uchun har tomonlama zarar ekani ko’zga tashlanadi, deydi u. Chet ellarga, xususan Eron va Pokistonga ish izlab ketayotganlar ko’p. Uylanib, oilasi bilan chiqib ketishayapti. O’qiganlarga ham ish yo’q. Bilim olib, vaqtim bekor ketibdi deya afsusda yurganlar har yerda uchraydi, deydi jurnalist. Ish topaman deb halok bo’layotganlar ham bor. Yaqinlashayotgan saylovlardan umid katta, saylovlar o’zgarishlar olib keladi degan niyat bor, deydi Abdulbasir Ilg’or.

Jurnalist o’tgan 12 yil ochida erishilgan yutuqlarni tilga oladi:

“Sog’liqni saqlash sohasi rivojlandi. Qayta qurish ishlari amalga oshdi. Yoshlar internet bilan tanishdi. Siyosiy tashkilotlar vujudga keldi. Eng muhim o’zgarish – savodxonlikning oshgani… Ko’plab insonlar o’qish va yozishni o’rgandi. Bu mamlakatimiz uchun asosiy o’zgarish”.

Maktablar o’gil va qiz bolalar uchun birdek ochiq biroq ta’lim sifati hamma yerda talabga javob bermaydi, deydi Abdubasir Ilg’or. Muallimlarning oyliklari juda past belgilangan. Afg’onlar bolajon. Qay elat va viloyatdan bo’lmasin, 10-12 farzandli oilalar ko’p. Kichikroq oilalarga ham og’ir. Deylik, olti a’zolik xonadonning oylik daromadi kamida 10-15 ming afg’oniy, 200-300 dollar bo’lmasa, kun kechirish juda qiyin, deydi jurnalist.
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    Navbahor Imamova

    Navbahor Imamova "Amerika Manzaralari" turkumidagi ilk teledasturlar muallifi. TV, radio va onlayn diktor, prodyuser, muxbir va muharrir. O'zbekistonda akkreditatsiyadan o'tgan, ya'ni respublikadan turib axborot berish imkoniyatiga yagona amerikalik jurnalist. "Amerika Ovozi"da 2002-yildan beri ishlaydi. Jurnalistik faoliyatini 1996-yilda O'zbekiston radiosining "Xalqaro hayot" redaksiyasida boshlagan. Jahon Tillar Universiteti Xalqaro jurnalistika fakultetida dars bergan. Ommaviy axborot vositalari bo'yicha bakalavrlikni Hindistonning Maysur Universitetidan (University of Mysore), magistrlikni esa AQShning Bol Davlat Universitetidan (Ball State University) olgan. Shuningdek, Garvard Universitetidan (Harvard University) davlat boshqaruvi va liderlik bo'yicha magistrlik diplomiga ega. Toshkent viloyati Bo'stonliq tumani Qo'shqo'rg'on qishlog'ida ziyoli oilasida ulg'aygan.

    Navbahor Imamova is a prominent Uzbek journalist at the Voice of America. As anchor, reporter, editor, web editor, and producer, she has covered Central Asia and America for nearly 20 years on TV, radio and online. For the last year, she has also been reporting from inside Uzbekistan as the only and first-ever accredited U.S.-based journalist. Navbahor is also the founding President of the VOA Women’s Caucus. Educated in Uzbekistan, India, and at Harvard University, she was a 2016-17 Edward S. Mason Fellow at Harvard’s John F. Kennedy School of Government, where she also earned her Masters in Public Administration. Navbahor played a pivotal role in the launch of Uzbek television programming at VOA in 2003 and has since presented more than 800 editions of the flagship weekly show “Exploring America,” which covers American foreign policy for some 40 million Uzbek speakers worldwide, focusing on U.S. relations with Central Asia and life and politics in the United States. She has co-hosted VOA-wide special broadcasts for a global audience. She has received multiple awards for excellence in broadcasting, including the VOA Gold Medal in 2010. As a multimedia journalist, with millions of viewers, listeners, followers, and fans, Navbahor writes and speaks frequently on Uzbek domestic politics, foreign policy, and society, as well as regional issues in Central Asia, for policy, academic, and popular audiences. Her essays have appeared in leading journals, including Foreign Policy, The National Interest, and The Diplomat, and she has lectured at institutions including the U.S. Foreign Service Institute, Columbia University, Johns Hopkins University, Georgetown University, and George Washington University. Navbahor began her career at the Uzbek state broadcaster as a reporter and producer. She taught journalism at her alma mater, the Uzbek State University of World Languages in Tashkent, and then earned a B.A. in journalism and mass communication from Maharaja’s College at the University of Mysore in India. A recipient of the Edmund Muskie Fellowship, she earned her MA in journalism from Ball State University. In 2009, Ball State’s journalism department named her an Outstanding Young Alumna.

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