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"O'z tariximizni va o'zgalar tarixini birdek o'rganishimiz kerak"


“Tugallanmagan tarix: Moziy islom dunyosi nigohida” (Destiny Disrupted: A History of the World Through Islamic Eyes)

Dunyoning qay burchagiga bormang, tarix o’zgacha talqin qilinishiga guvoh bo’lasiz. O’tmish haqida hamma turlicha fikrda. Tarixni mag’lub emas, g’oliblar bitadi deyishadi. Qadim o’tmish u yoqda tursin, yaqin tarixdagi voqealar ham cheksiz munozaralar mavzusi.

"Biz kecha kim edik-ku, bugun kimmiz degan savol har bir jamiyatni azaldan qiynab kelayotgan masala", deydi tarixchi olim Tamim Ansariy (Tamim Ansary).

Tarixchi Tamim Ansariy bilan suhbat - Navbahor Imamova
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Ansariyning “Tugallanmagan tarix: Moziy islom dunyosi nigohida” (Destiny Disrupted: A History of the World Through Islamic Eyes) kitobi ayniqsa G’arbda katta qiziqish bilan o’qilayotgan asarlardan biri.

Tamim Ansariy asli afg’on. Muhammad payg’ambar yoshiga yaqinlashayotgan bu olim o’rta maktab va oliy o’quv yurtlarini Amerikada bitirgan. Zamon haqidagi qarashlarini eshitib, uni global fuqaro desak arziydi.

“Yuragimning bir parchasi afg’on zaminida qolgan”,- deydi u.

Bugungi kunda u AQShda yoshlar tarixni qanday o’rganishi, qay kitoblar o’qishi lozimligini belgilovchi hay’at a’zolaridan biri.

O’z ilmiy asarlarida tarixiy ob’yektivlik- xolislik masalasiga alohida urg’u beradi.

Lekin tarixga ob’yektiv qarash mumkinmi?

Mumkin, deydi Tamim Ansariy, bu asos va chuqur bilim talab qiladi xolos.

To’g’ri, deydi olim, insoniyat boshdan kechirgan har bir muhim voqeani sarhisob qilish, xolis baholash mumkin emas. O’tmishning ko’p qismi bizga qorong’u ekanini ham unutmaslik kerak. Lekin bugun bizni qiynayotgan muammolarga yechimni tarixning bizga ma’lum sahifalaridan izlash mumkin. Bugungi hayotimizga qarab insoniyat ulkan yutuqlarga erishganini tan olmay iloj yo’q. Demak nimanidir to’g’ri qilganki, omadi chopgan.

“Tugallanmagan tarix: Moziy islom dunyosi nigohida” kitobida Tamim Ansariy G’arbni islom dunyosi tarixidan voqif qilishga harakat qiladi. G’arb ommasi musulmonlar bilan til topishishi uchun avval ular bosib o’tgan mashaqqatli va qonli, shonli va zafarli yo’lga razm solishi lozim, deydi muallif.

Musulmonlar ham o’z tarixini o’rganishi, g’arb va sharq orasida uzoq asrlar davomida aloqalar qanday kechganini, dunyoning u tarafidagi o’zgarishlar bu tomonlarda qanday aks-sado berganini bilishi shart.

Islom buyuk din va madaniyat ekaniga shubha yo’q, deydi Tamim Ansariy, lekin uni bugungi musulmonlar asosli ravishda tushuntirib berishga qodirmi? Insonlar bir-birini faqat kechagi buyuklikka qarab emas, bugungi holiga ham qarab baholaydi, deydi ziyoli.

Tamim Ansariy fikricha, G’arbda jahon tarixi deganda ko’p hollarda g’arbiy yarim shar tarixi – qadim rimliklar va greklardan tortib, nasroniy sivilizatsiya nazarda tutiladi. Shuningdek, qadim Misr, Xitoy va Hindiston haqida o’ziga xos tushuncha bor. Ularga mumtoz tarix sifatida qarashadi. Lekin islom tarixiga e’tibor past.

“Tugallanmagan tarix: Moziy islom dunyosi nigohida” kitobida Tamim Ansariy har bir shaxs jahon tarixini yaxshi tushunmoqchi bo’lsa, islom va musulmonlar tarixini ham o’rganishi shart degan nazariyani olg’a suradi.

Jumladan, quyidagi mavzularni: O’rta dunyo – g’arb va sharq orasidagi bepoyon hudud; Muhammad va hijra; islom asoslari; xalifalik; mazhablar; Ummaviylar va Abbosiylar davri; musulmon olimlar, faylasuf va adiblar, islomiy san’at; islomiy oqimlar va maktablar; turkiylar; islom olamidagi zulmatga to’la damlar, shuningdek uyg’onish va yorqinlik hukm surgan davrlar; Yevropa janubida musulmonlar hukmronlik qilgan paytlar; musulmon jamiyatlaridagi siyosat; natsionalizm va milliy mafkura; islohotlar va huquq; taraqqiyot; dunyoviylik va islom modernizmi; qolaversa o’tgan ikki asr mobaynida kimlar hokimiyatni boshqargani.

Tamim Ansariy nazarida musulmon jamiyatlarida islomdan dars berish yaxshi yo’lga qo’yilmagan. Gap bu yerda Qur’onni qiroat qilish haqida ketayotgani yo’q. Maqsad bu muqaddas kitob mazmunini tushunish va islomning mag’zini chaqish. Ilmsizlik odamni ko’r qiladi, deydi Ansariy, loqaydlik va befarqlikka yetaklaydi.

“Yaqinda Markaziy Osiyoga safar qilganimda”, deya hikoya qiladi olim “o’zini musulmon deb bilgan ko’plab insonlarning din va tarix haqidagi bilimi juda sayoz ekaniga guvoh bo’ldim”. Vaholanki, mintaqa islomiy sivilizatsiyaga qo’shgan buyuk hissasi bilan faxrlanib keladi.

Maktab va oliygohlarda darslar berilayotgan bo’lishi mumkin, deydi u, lekin odamlar erkin fikrlab mulohaza yuritishga o’rgatilmayapti.


“Bu ko’plab jamiyatlarga xos muammo”, deya qo’shadi u. Beqaror nuqtalarda xalqlar “buyuk tarix”ni ro’kach qilib yashashdan to’ygan, chunki ularning bugungi kuni juda og’ir. Lekin bunga qanday yetdik deb hayron bo’lsangiz yana tarix sahifalariga qaytishga majbursiz.

“O’z tariximizni, o’zgalar tarixini va butun jahon tarixini chuqurroq o’rganmay iloj yo’q”,- deydi Tamim Ansariy.

Balki ana o’shanda dunyoning turli burchaklaridan chiqqan odamlar qaysi urushni kim yutib kim yutqazgani; kimning avlodi qanchalik ulug’ hukmdor bo’lgan-u, kimning avlodi unga bo’ysungani; qay daho kimning millati yoki diniga mansub bo’lgani, qay elat qachon taraqqiyot cho’qqisini egallab, qachon zulmatga botgani haqida mantiqli bir bahs yurita olar.

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    Navbahor Imamova

    Navbahor Imamova "Amerika Manzaralari" turkumidagi ilk teledasturlar muallifi. TV, radio va onlayn diktor, prodyuser, muxbir va muharrir. O'zbekistonda akkreditatsiyadan o'tgan, ya'ni respublikadan turib axborot berish imkoniyatiga yagona amerikalik jurnalist. "Amerika Ovozi"da 2002-yildan beri ishlaydi. Jurnalistik faoliyatini 1996-yilda O'zbekiston radiosining "Xalqaro hayot" redaksiyasida boshlagan. Jahon Tillar Universiteti Xalqaro jurnalistika fakultetida dars bergan. Ommaviy axborot vositalari bo'yicha bakalavrlikni Hindistonning Maysur Universitetidan (University of Mysore), magistrlikni esa AQShning Bol Davlat Universitetidan (Ball State University) olgan. Shuningdek, Garvard Universitetidan (Harvard University) davlat boshqaruvi va liderlik bo'yicha magistrlik diplomiga ega. Toshkent viloyati Bo'stonliq tumani Qo'shqo'rg'on qishlog'ida ziyoli oilasida ulg'aygan.

    Navbahor Imamova is a prominent Uzbek journalist at the Voice of America. As anchor, reporter, editor, web editor, and producer, she has covered Central Asia and America for nearly 20 years on TV, radio and online. For the last year, she has also been reporting from inside Uzbekistan as the only and first-ever accredited U.S.-based journalist. Navbahor is also the founding President of the VOA Women’s Caucus. Educated in Uzbekistan, India, and at Harvard University, she was a 2016-17 Edward S. Mason Fellow at Harvard’s John F. Kennedy School of Government, where she also earned her Masters in Public Administration. Navbahor played a pivotal role in the launch of Uzbek television programming at VOA in 2003 and has since presented more than 800 editions of the flagship weekly show “Exploring America,” which covers American foreign policy for some 40 million Uzbek speakers worldwide, focusing on U.S. relations with Central Asia and life and politics in the United States. She has co-hosted VOA-wide special broadcasts for a global audience. She has received multiple awards for excellence in broadcasting, including the VOA Gold Medal in 2010. As a multimedia journalist, with millions of viewers, listeners, followers, and fans, Navbahor writes and speaks frequently on Uzbek domestic politics, foreign policy, and society, as well as regional issues in Central Asia, for policy, academic, and popular audiences. Her essays have appeared in leading journals, including Foreign Policy, The National Interest, and The Diplomat, and she has lectured at institutions including the U.S. Foreign Service Institute, Columbia University, Johns Hopkins University, Georgetown University, and George Washington University. Navbahor began her career at the Uzbek state broadcaster as a reporter and producer. She taught journalism at her alma mater, the Uzbek State University of World Languages in Tashkent, and then earned a B.A. in journalism and mass communication from Maharaja’s College at the University of Mysore in India. A recipient of the Edmund Muskie Fellowship, she earned her MA in journalism from Ball State University. In 2009, Ball State’s journalism department named her an Outstanding Young Alumna.

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