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O'zbekistonda nima yangiligu, nima yangilik emas?


24-yanvar kuni Jorj Vashington Universitetida o’tgan davra suhbatida uch ekspert O’zbekistonda Prezident Shavkat Mirziyoyev boshlagan islohotlar shu paytgacha nima o’zgarishlarga yetaklagani haqida fikr almashdi. Muloqot asosan respublikada fuqaro jamiyati va nohukumat tashkilotlar faoliyati, ta’lim sohasidagi muammolar va yangi qarorlar hamda axborot vositalari va jurnalistika olamida kuzatilayotgan va kuzatilmayotgan siljishlar haqida kechdi.

O'zbekiston: fuqaro jamiyati, ta'lim va matbuot
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O'zbekiston: AQSh siyosiy-ilmiy doiralarida
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Jorj Vashington Universiteti professori Shon Roberts (Sean Roberts) tahlilicha, O’zbekistonda nohukumat tashkilotlar faol lekin ular aslida mustaqil emas, hukumat nazoratidagi va qo’shtirnoq ichidagi fuqaro jamiyati.

Bu jihatdan, deydi olim, hali katta o’zgarishlar sezilmaydi. Lekin bu tashkilotlar jamiyatdagi muhim masalalarga yechim qidirish, aholiga yordam berish va imkon qadar o’z takliflarini olg’a surish bilan mashg’ul.

Demokratik muhitlarga xos, tom ma’noda mustaqil va o’z g’oya va maqsadlarini olg’a sura oladigan fuqaro jamiyati shakllanishi uchun O’zbekistonda hali ko’p o’zgarishlar bo’lishi lozim, deydi tahlilchi.

Sebastiyan Peyruz (Sebastien Peryrouse), Jorj Vashington universitetidan yana bir olim, mintaqashunos professor, e’tiborni ta’lim sohasida chiqqan yangi qarorlar hamda O’zbekiston ilm maskanlaridagi vaziyatga qaratdi.

Bu yo’nalishda katta o’zgarishlar yuz bermoqda va yangi siljishlar kutilmoqda, deydi Peyruz. Prezident Mirziyoyev aynan ta’limga tinimsiz urg’u berayotgani, tub muammolarni o’zi ko’tarib chiqib, deydi olim, oiladan tortib bog’chagacha, boshlang’ich sinfdan tortib o’rta maktab, kasb-hunar o’quv yurtlaridan tortib universitetlarga ta’lim sifatini oshirish zarurligi haqida gapirmoqda.

O’zbekistonda oliy ta’limga talab katta lekin sharoit yo’q. Universitet va insitutlarda o’qish aksariyat aholining moliyaviy qurbi yetmaydigan imkoniyat. Ta’lim haqqi yil sari osmonga chiqar ekan, respublikaga zarur kadlarni yetishtirish ham qiyinlashaveradi. O’qituvchilarning maoshi juda past ekani ham muhim omil. Korrupsiya eng chuqur ildiz otgan sohalardan biri ham shu, deya baholaydi Sebasriyan Peyruz.

O'zbekistondagi islohotlar - Vashingtonda muhokamada
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Xo’sh, matbuotda, jurnalistika sohasida qanday yangiliklar bor? Men bu haqda gapirar ekanman, quyidagilarga urg'u berdim:

Onlayn, ya’ni internetda asoslangan axborot manbalari faollashdi va rang-baranglashdi – mazmun va ko’lam jihatdan. O’zbekistondagi hayotni kengroq yoritishga intilayotgan, qiziqarli materiallar berayotgan, mahalliy manbalarga tayanib, muntazam axborot uzatayotgan vositalar ko’paydi.

Jamoatchilik fikriga e’tibor oshdi. Mahalliy mutaxassislar, jamoatchi faollar va oddiy fuqarolar ham bugun O’zbekiston axborot vositalarida ko’proq so’zlamoqda, fikr almashmoqda. Bu uzoq yillar faqat rasmiy xabarlarni berish bilan band bo’lgan matbuot uchun progress.

Erkinlik sha’badasi ham esa boshladi, deydigan jurnalistlar ko’p, lekin malaka va uquv pastligi tub muammo bo’lib qolmoqda. O’tkir jurnalistlar yetishtiradigan dargohlar vujudga kelishi kerak. Jurnalistika ta’limida islohotlar zarur.

Va eng muhimi, hukumatning axborot vositalariga nisbatan munosabati va yondashuvi o’zgarmagan. Davlatning ishi ularni nazorat qilish emas, ularni o’ziga bo’ysundirish, axborot oqimini to’sish emas, balki xalqqa uning faoliyati haqida haqqoniy va xolis xabarlar yetib borishini ta’minlash.

Bunga qanday erishish mumkin? Jurnalistga professional sifatida qaraysiz. Unga qo’lingizdagi ma’lumotni vaqtida yetkazasiz. Uning savollariga javob berasiz. Matbuot xodimlariga hurmat bilan muomala qilasiz. Qodirmisiz bunga?

Dunyoda hukumat borki, informatsion ta’sirga ega bo’lishni xohlaydi va shunga harakat qiladi. Lekin bu jurnalistlarning erkinligini bo’g’ish yoki axborot vositalarini o’z izniga olish degani emas. Bugungi O’zbekistonda hamon shunga guvohmiz va erkinlikka erishish yo’lida qilinadigan ishlar talay.

Reforms in Uzbekistan: Discussion at CAP, GWU 1-24-18
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  • 16x9 Image

    Navbahor Imamova

    Navbahor Imamova "Amerika Manzaralari" turkumidagi ilk teledasturlar muallifi. TV, radio va onlayn diktor, prodyuser, muxbir va muharrir. O'zbekistonda akkreditatsiyadan o'tgan, ya'ni respublikadan turib axborot berish imkoniyatiga yagona amerikalik jurnalist. "Amerika Ovozi"da 2002-yildan beri ishlaydi. Jurnalistik faoliyatini 1996-yilda O'zbekiston radiosining "Xalqaro hayot" redaksiyasida boshlagan. Jahon Tillar Universiteti Xalqaro jurnalistika fakultetida dars bergan. Ommaviy axborot vositalari bo'yicha bakalavrlikni Hindistonning Maysur Universitetidan (University of Mysore), magistrlikni esa AQShning Bol Davlat Universitetidan (Ball State University) olgan. Shuningdek, Garvard Universitetidan (Harvard University) davlat boshqaruvi va liderlik bo'yicha magistrlik diplomiga ega. Toshkent viloyati Bo'stonliq tumani Qo'shqo'rg'on qishlog'ida ziyoli oilasida ulg'aygan.

    Navbahor Imamova is a prominent Uzbek journalist at the Voice of America. As anchor, reporter, editor, web editor, and producer, she has covered Central Asia and America for nearly 20 years on TV, radio and online. For the last year, she has also been reporting from inside Uzbekistan as the only and first-ever accredited U.S.-based journalist. Navbahor is also the founding President of the VOA Women’s Caucus. Educated in Uzbekistan, India, and at Harvard University, she was a 2016-17 Edward S. Mason Fellow at Harvard’s John F. Kennedy School of Government, where she also earned her Masters in Public Administration. Navbahor played a pivotal role in the launch of Uzbek television programming at VOA in 2003 and has since presented more than 800 editions of the flagship weekly show “Exploring America,” which covers American foreign policy for some 40 million Uzbek speakers worldwide, focusing on U.S. relations with Central Asia and life and politics in the United States. She has co-hosted VOA-wide special broadcasts for a global audience. She has received multiple awards for excellence in broadcasting, including the VOA Gold Medal in 2010. As a multimedia journalist, with millions of viewers, listeners, followers, and fans, Navbahor writes and speaks frequently on Uzbek domestic politics, foreign policy, and society, as well as regional issues in Central Asia, for policy, academic, and popular audiences. Her essays have appeared in leading journals, including Foreign Policy, The National Interest, and The Diplomat, and she has lectured at institutions including the U.S. Foreign Service Institute, Columbia University, Johns Hopkins University, Georgetown University, and George Washington University. Navbahor began her career at the Uzbek state broadcaster as a reporter and producer. She taught journalism at her alma mater, the Uzbek State University of World Languages in Tashkent, and then earned a B.A. in journalism and mass communication from Maharaja’s College at the University of Mysore in India. A recipient of the Edmund Muskie Fellowship, she earned her MA in journalism from Ball State University. In 2009, Ball State’s journalism department named her an Outstanding Young Alumna.

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